A million mutinies within
If you purchase a vehicle in State A , India and if you decide to move to State B, India, get a No Object Certificate (a.k.a NOC) from the concerned Regional Transport Office (RTO) of your vehicle registration.
If you think that NOC is such a bureaucratic process and a lot of hassle, sell your vehicle in State A before moving to State B.
NOTE: Use Option 1 only if you believe that you are sentimentally attached to your vehicle.
The process of re-registration of out of state vehicles is so cumbersome that any vehicle owner in India will just loathe the archaic Motor Vehicles Act (MVA) rules and the opaque nature of RTO operation. This is Indian Bureaucracy at its best and it flexes itself admirably to money power.
I will highlight the process of applying for NOC in the city of Hyderabad for moving your vehicle over to Chennai.
Application of NOC in Hyderabad
(A) Obtain police clearance certificate.
For the above mentioned procedures, you should submit a copy of your registration certificate as well as a copy of identify (Driver's License, Passport, Voter ID or PAN card).
(B) After obtaining a clearance from the Police Department, i.e. no-pending-dues from Traffic Police as well as no-crime records from Detective Department, you can now apply for NOC with the concerned RTO. Form 28 should be completed in triplicate (if the vehicle is NOT under hypothecation) or in quadruplicate (if under hypothecation). After submitting the necessary fees, the RTO will process your request in a day or two.
The whole process should be over within three days (best case) to two weeks (worst case) time. If the power of money is applied, the processing time-line gets flexible.
Re-registration of vehicle at Chennai
Now that you have crossed half the challenge, after obtaining the NOC from Hyderabad, you may apply for re-registration with the RTO under your local jurisdiction. The following documents are considered necessary by the RTO - at the time of writing:
(1) Form 33 with prescribe fee of Rs 20. *
(2) Form 29 and Form 30 - for transfer of ownership. This applies if your are re-registering the vehicle in someone else name. *
(3) Form 20 with chassis # being attached as a pencil print along with a photo of the owner. Applicable fees extra.
(4) NOC issued by the original registering authority (the NOC that you obtained from concerned RTO in Hyderabad). Should be signed duplicate copies.
(5) Life Time Tax to be paid (depends on the category of your vehicle)
(6) Address Proof copy
(7) Insurance Certificate
(8) Pollution control Certificate
(9) Police clearance should be obtained from National Crimes Record Bureau (NCRB), Chennai - 106 or District Crimes Record Bureau (DCRB), Egmore Office.
(10) Entry tax for the vehicle (if applicable)
(11) If Registration Certificate is invalid, then Form 25 should be completed
(12) Original Registration Certificate
(13) Chassis # pencil prints (4 Nos.), Passport size photos (6 Nos.), Court Fee Stamp of Rs 2.
(14) Financier Authorization letter (if applicable)
(15) Signed Affidavit in front of Judicial Magistrate/Notary Public on a Rs 20 non-judicial paper with a photo of the applicant explaining the nature of work of the individual.
(16) Rs 30 postal stamp affixed letters (2 Nos.) One for the applicant and the other for the original RTO of registration.
Phew! The Bureaucrats have intentionally made it tougher to re-register out of state vehicles. What a torrid time to be a vehicle owner!
What I find as more stupid is the application for PCC at the Original State as well as at the transferred State. Why can't the RTO link up with the NCRB and verify the vehicles for themselves; with access to centralized repository? This is something that can be achieved with will-power and help improve the efficiency of the whole process. What a shame! Moreover certain provisions of the MVA are not applied in spirit by the concerned officials at RTO. There are provisions in MVA to apply for NOC by registered Post and declare it in an Affidavit - in the absence of NOC from the original RTO. They just prefer to act like rubber stamps and do NOT want to interpret the MVA rules.
We badly need a Transport Secretary that is willing to go the extra mile of overhauling the archaic system!
UPDATE: For vehicle re-registration in Tamil Nadu, it is NOT the duty of the Applicant to obtain local PCC from the State Crimes Record Bureau (SCRB) or District Crimes Record Bureau (DCRB). The concerned RTO (where the Applicant makes a re-registration application) should actually intimate and obtain PCC from the SCRB or DCRB.
Added 20th May 2012 - More info about re-registering the vehicle in your current State.
Disclaimer:Published comments reflect the opinion of the Commenter.
Showing 50 most recent comments out of a total of 103 published ones.
Can any one tell me the validity of noc. Is it 1 month or 3 month ? as people in the rto are fooling me by charging penalty saying noc is valid for one month . But rto from were I issued the noc are saying noc is valid for 3 months . Please send any link of rto were it is written show that I van proof them
When I was serving in the Air Force HQ Subroto Park New Delhi, I purchased a bike (Hiro Honda Passion) in Jun 2004. At the time of my transfer from New Delhi to Air Force Station Tezpur, I could not obtain the NOC in Oct 2005. After retirement from service in Aug 2010 I am planning to settle in Guwahati. Now I am unable to re-register my bike at Guwahati without the NOC from the RTO New Delhi.
- At this stage I am not in a position to go to New Delhi for the NOC due to my financial back grounds. Sir, do you like to advise me with the procedure as how to get the NOC through correspondence.
dear friend i need a suggestion plese help me out.
i purchased a vehicle in andhra pradesh & i got a job in karnataka so i have taken the noc to karnataka
the RC book has been sent from andhra pradesh to karnartaka RTO office
but i havent made the karnataka registration it was still andhra registration, so now i want back my RC book from karnataka RTO
how should i make it possible......
I think you can try temporary registration or even try to pay the road tax of Gujarat Government while using your vehicle in their State for a certain period of time (if not permanent). You might require a NOC only if you plan a re-registration in another State.
thank you for provideing usefull info
I am currently driving my Tamil Nadu registered vehicle in Gujarat. The Bike is purchased in my name and have all documents for it. I am not going to be settled permanent here. Do I need to take a NOC for my vehicle. If yes in which state & why should I take NOC if the owner of vehicle is driving the vehicle. I believe that NOC is required only if i wish to re-register my vehicle. Please advice. If it is mandatory what the MV ACT No.
You guys are genius. If you want to take the vehicle from state a to state b go the state b and pay the road tax for the state b and get the receipt. Tell them you may go back to state a. No NOC or stupid documents required. If traffice police or rta idiots catch you show them the road tax receipt. Now you can drive your vehicle in both the states genius. I took advice from forums and later on came to know about this. All state RTA wants is you to pay the road tax.
I am doing multiple hops thus I got NOC from bangalore to Hyderabad. Now I am going to pune. Do i have to get one more NOC from Hyderabad ?
Great questions. If only someone can clarify! Try options such as temporary registration in the new State and see what documents are required. Check the Citizen's Charter guidelines for each process.
Great question. I think Form 28 needs to be submitted in four copies if it the concerned vehicle is held in lien (i.e. By Financier of the vehicle - in this case your Bank). I am not sure if a Bank can refuse from signing a NOC Form. You have to check the legality with the concerned RTO. It would be a shame if they don't offer a transparent answer. Ask the concerned people "if there is anything in written format" that says "a NOC cannot be issued without a loan being completely paid off". The Bank and RTO are answerable to such queries. File RTI - i suppose.
Also, check with your SBI Faridabad branch if the loan can be transferred to SBI, Pune and in that case would they issue a no-objection to the transfer of vehicle (seems a bit complicated to me).
Your third question seems like the best route possible in terms of less hassle. Check with the RTO. There is also a concept called temporary registration. Whether that requires NOC is subject to what is mentioned in the Citizen's charter.
I bought Wagonr CNG from Faridabad,Haryana in Dec 2012 & took loan of Rs. 3 Lacs from SBI. Now i have moved to Pune. Pease clarify:
1) For getting NOC from Faridabad RTO, do i need to payoff whole loan amt. (As Bank is not giving NOC, till the time i dn't pay whole loan amt.). Also, Faridabad SBI Branch is not allowing me to transfer the loan branch from Faridabad to Pune.
2) I can't pay whole loan till Dec 2013,so is there any way wherein i can get NOC from SBI,Faridabad & thus NOC from Faridabad RTO?
3) Suppose i don't get NOC from Faridabad RTO because of above mentioned reasons, can i drive my car in Pune atleast till one year, after paying (Some Amt. or Road tax) which is very less than re-registration.
I am planning to move my car from my hometown-registered in Ajmer (Rajasthan) to the place I am presently working in Pune (Maharashtra). I am not sure for how long I'll be staying in Pune but in all probability it'll be less than a year (however definitely more than 3 months).
1) Is NOC required in this case too?
2) Is it correct that after taking an NOC, the vehcile reg. is automatically cancelled in the home RTO after 3 months?
3) Do I need to pay the road tax in the new state in this case?
4) Is it correct that vehicle re-registration is not required in the new state upto a year?
5) And finally the million-dollar question - If I am checked for any of the 3 (NOC, New road tax, Re-registration), How does one confirms the timeline for arrival of the vehicle in the new state? And how much is the fine in each of the cases?
Somebody said, that no re-registration need to be done to run the bike in Delhi (As NCR). Kindly confirm it. Thanks in advance.
I am moving from Ambala to Hyderabad, I will be taking my car and Bike along. These vehicles are registered in Ambala( Haryana ) only. Could you please let me know, what I need to get from RTO Ambala. If i want to register vehicle in Hyderabad, then what is the procedure. My apology, if i asked something same.
I have a car registered in Durgapur ( WB ) and now moved to Indore ( MP ). I need to obtain NOC. I have filled form 28, what all documents I need to furnish along with it. also how much fee required. My road tax payment was upto dec 12 and in Dec only we moved. Will I have to pay road tax in Durgapur?
moving from hosur (tamil nadu) to dharuhera(haryana)under delhi NCR.I came across the statement above that any state's vehicle can be driven freely in delhi NCR.Is it true or need to obtain NOC(Compulsory)and follow the regular route.pls confirm as i don't have much time to do all the process related to obtain NOC.
kislay kumar jha
I obtained NOC from AP for transfereing it to another state . Now I am moving from that state to new state after 2 years . In meanwhile I didnt use my bike hence didnt register it in the other state. WHat should I do now to get NOC for the new state?
Excellent questions! Only if someone can answer.
(1) As far as I know, you will end up paying road tax again in Kerala (or wherever you move) - unless otherwise there is some State specific clause to it.
(3) Believe refund of life-time road tax is NOT possible. Clarify or even file an RTI to get it in writing. Never trust any oral communication from a Govt. Servant.
I am currently having a Car Registered at Chennai with Full Life Time Tax. Now need to move to Kerala:
1) Do I need to pay the Road Tax again at Kerala if I'm Re-registering in Kerala?
2) If Yes, the amount will be calculated based on the Original Value of the car while buying it, or the current IDV declared in insurance(I got the car 3 years back)
3) If I pay the new Road Tax in Kerala, will I get any refund from my Old Registered location(Chennai), If Yes, what is the procedure
Thanks for such an informative post
If am right, you probably need NOT take your bike to Gurgaon (HR) for obtaining NOC. A completed Form 28 should be good with a pencil sketch of the vehicle chassis and engine ID affixed to the Form. Make sure you have two or three copies of Form 28. Check out other documents if required. Obtain a Police Clearance Certificate at Gurgaon and along with it submit the Form 28 in order to get the NOC. Specify Pune RTO as the destination RTO.
After obtaining this, please visit the concerned RTO at Pune and apply for re-registration. The formalities might differ a bit (depending on the bureaucracy).
Hope this helps.
My bike is registered in Gurgaon (Haryana) but i moved to Pune along with the bike for higher studies . Now i got a job in Pune and would stay here .
How to get the NOC from Gurgaon without taking the bike back to Gurgaon as it would be very difficult ..
I have all the documents but not pollution .
Thanks for sharing your experience. Looks like your expired NOC (Form 28) from Gujarat was originally intended for Chennai. Can you check with the Gujarat RTO (where your registration is valid) and see if they can issue one (again) for Kerala (your home RTO)? Talk to someone who can interpret MVA regulations and give you a clear answer! Does the South Chennai RTO has any role to play in your case? As far as my knowledge is concerned, they have nothing to do as you have NOT re-registered the vehicle with them. In any case, check with appropriate folks.
Excellent and much needed post & comments!
I purchased a motorbike costing around Rs 50k in Nov 2007 from Gujarat and when I had to move to Chennai in early 2009, I decided not to sell my bike that was just over 1 year old and obtained NOC from the RTO in Gujarat. With a validity of 1 year, I escaped paying the eager traffic policemen scouting the Chennai roads for opportunities for bribes/fines. When I had about 3 months left in my NOC validity, I decided to apply for new registration in Tamil Nadu. When I visited the South Chennai RTO office, I realized that agents rule the roost and I have no option but to take their help. To arrange the above mentioned documents, I had to go to the Egmore police station and other offices in far corners of the city. I was informed by the person at application counter that I would additionally need to pay an amount around 15% of vehicle purchase cost at some far off commercial tax office in Chennai to get clearance for new registration because I moved a vehicle less than 18months after purchase ('new' by their definition). Without any luck to identify the right office and without any fair sense to pay 10k for my own depreciated bike costing around 35k, I did not bother changing the registration.
Thereafter I had to go on an overseas deputation in 2010 and hence I moved my bike to my home state Kerala where it is still lying mostly unused (driven on private roads) but in a working condition at my home. The original NOC from Gujarat has expired.
I would like to change to a Kerala registration where the hassles are less for re-registration. I guess I need to start by getting a new NOC from Chennai to change it to my destination in Kerala. Any other taxes/clearances that I need to pay at Chennai?
Thanks, its very informative. Also its very shameful that government is not friendly to law-abiding citizen and forces them to bypass or ignore the correct procedures.
can anyone tell me the cost for RTO re-regis from assam to tamilnadu ?
In National Capital Region (including Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad) any state’s vehicle can be drive with out any additional documents. The rider is, You need to carry all your original documents including RC, License, insurance and Pollution Control certificate. As UP 16 (Noida) and UP 14 (Ghaziabad) are same state and adjacent part of district and NCR Status, you will never find any problem. Enjoy your drive!! :)
Delhi is the National Capital Region (including Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad). Any state's vehicle can be drive at Delhi with out any additional documents. The rider is, You need to carry all your original documents including RC, License, insurance and Pollution Control certificate. So people who are moving to delhi need not to worry. "Cheers" :)
I bought a howrah , West Bengal registered car to Malda, West Bengal. Since I got this vehicle transferred to another district I have been asked to re-register the car in Malda. I have obtained the NOC from howrah. I would like to know what is the validity for this NOC and what would be cost of doing to re-register the car in my dinesh
Thanks for posting your experience. Please check with the RTO at Silguri on the validity of your NOC from Bangalore. As per MVA rule, they will cross-check your Form 28 with the Jayanagar, Bangalore RTO before granting any re-registration that you have applied for in Silguri. They might also require a local police report (from Silguri). This is usually performed as an official communication between the Silguri RTO and the concerned Police department handling such requests.
You should be able to ride your bike in West Bengal (with KA registration) as long as you have made an application for re-registration and have paid the necessary road tax fees. Retain the receipt of your submission as it is the only proof that you have made such application at Silguri.
Hope this helps.
Read few comments above. I Just got my bike transported from Bangalore To Siliguri, West Bengal.
Getting the NOC at bangalore was very easy.
Went to RTO Jaynagar. Took two form 28. Filled it with chasis pencil marking and rest details. - (1 hour)
Got the No criminal record document from comissioner office at Infantry Road - ( 3 hours the stupid clerk was having lunch for two hours)
Submitted the 2 28 forms, No criminal record certificate, Emission test, Original smart card and a 30/- rupees envelope with my West Bengal address. (30 mins)
Got the NOC after 35 days in the West Bengal address i mentioned on the envelope. :)
As i didn't pat any bribe I got the entire NOC done for 30/- bucks just that i had to wait 35 days.
Now I have one concern. If anyone can help please reply.
1.How long can I ride a bike in a West Bengal with Karnatake registration number? ( I read somewhere that the valid time is about 45days. Is it true?)
- What is the validity of a NOC? ( i read somewhere 3 months, some blog it said 6 months and some said 1year)
Waiting for your help.
Moving on I think changing the registration number is a big procedure. Will try for it. But mostly planning to pay just the WB tax(which i have to pay by default in case i am changing registration) to be able to ride freely from cops.
Did you get any solution to this. I had the same Problem. I moved from Gujarat (Ahmedabad) to Pune for 5-6 months. Please share your ideas to me ASAP.
It would be your great help
hey guys, will the registration of a vehicle also be changed to that of the new state if applied for a no objection certificate?
Thank you so much for sharing the information with others. Much appreciated!
I was just going through some of the earlier comments and very surprised to see the middlemen making money for getting NOC (for that matter anything) from motor vehicle department. To get an NOC you may need to spend less than 100 rupees. There is no fees as such when I applied for the same in RTO banglore (east). I purchased two postal covers and with a stamp of ₹ 25 each. Visited RT office 4 times.
1) Done good analysis of the process by visiting the deparment's site and by googling.
2) My first visit: Almost 1 hour spent. Submitted form 28 in triplicate ( remember to affix pencil print of chassis number which I missed first time )
following documents to be attached
a) Original registration certifcate
b) Valid certificate of insurance
c) Pollution under control certificate
d) copy of tax paid receipt
3) Second visit after one month: It helped me to move the file to next desk.
4) Third visit after 2 weeks from the last visit : They told me that they did not get an noc from police deparment. So the concerned officer has given me a letter and I have visited office of the commissioner of police and got the noc and submitted it to RTO . They told me that they will send me the all the documents by registered post. By that time I had only one week left to move out of bangalore.
5) Fourth visit after one week of last week. All my documents were ready. To get it over the counter, I had to put some money into clerk's mouth.
Still I am very much satisfied by the overall experience. If you have time, do it yourself.
All the best.
Following documents also provided;
- Application for assignment of new registration mark to a motor vehicle in Form 27 duly filled and signed.
- No Objection Certificate in Form 28 with pencil print of chassis number affixed there in issued from registering authority
- Valid certificate of registration
- Valid certificate of insurance
- Pollution under control certificate
- Copy of PAN card
- Proof of Residence
I hereby solemnly affirm and declare that I am the legal owner of the vehicle and its above documents and vehicle are genuine.
I hereby declare that there are no departmental or any other action pending against this vehicle and the vehicle is not involved in any theft or superandi case.
I unconditionally hereby undertake that I will be responsible and bound clear any dues or any other actions regarding theft or forged documents if found later on and to suffer any action taken against me relating to this vehicle even prior to the date of removal to this state.
To the best of my knowledge and belief, I have not suppressed any facts or information. All facts, information and details furnished above and in the form and documents produced are true and genuine and also undertake to hold myself responsible for any inaccuracy of documents, information and for all kinds of losses to the Government.
Read over and what is stated is true and correct.
Signature of the applicant:
Format of affidavit and statement mentioned in serial number 10 and 11
Affidavit filed by <Your name? wife of /son of/daughter of , before the registering authority under section 47 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988.
I have brought a motor cycle bearing registration number with chassis number and Engine number . The vehicle is originally registered with Regional Transport Office, Indiranagar, Bangalore (East) in my own name in the and brought to this state on 4th januaryy 2013 and thereby producing the vehicle to Road Transport
Office for inspection.
I have brought my two wheeler from the state of Karnataka and in the process of registering it in the state of Kerala.
Following is the process I have followed to register my vehicle in one of the RTO office in Kerala.
Documents required before visiting RTO
1) Form No. 33 duly filled and signed
2) Form No. 27 duly filled and signed
3) Form no. 28 ,i.e. NOC issued by the original registering authority (NOC obtained from the state of origin). Should be signed in duplicate copies.
4) Address Proof copy attested by Gazetted officer
5) Original RC book
6) Insurance Certificate
7) Pollution control certificate
8) Visit National Crimes Record Bureau website and get a printout stating that vehicle is not stolen. Go to the website ncrb.nic.in and click on vehicle inquiry link. Rest of the steps are self-explanatory
9) Attest your two photos by a gazetted officer
10) Signed Affidavit in front of Judicial Magistrate/Notary Public on a Rs 100 non-judicial paper with a photo of the applicant explaining the nature of work of the individual.
11) Statement of documents submitted which is to be notarized by a notary affixing adhesive stamp of ₹ 50
12) Vehicle purchase invoice
- Got it verified by joint RTO and he will put a seal stating “Accept fees and tax, inspect the vehicle”
- Go to the fees counter and show the documents and pay the fees and tax. Get the receipt for fees and tax paid
- Now get the vehicle physically verified by the motor vehicle inspector. He will check the engine number and chassis number of the vehicle and will give a certificate stating that he has done so. It will be usually in writing and signed and sealed by him
- Submit all these documents and get an acknowledgement slip.
- Now wait for the correspondence from the department which will be sent by post to your registered address.
- PRO will not say all the documents and formalities at the first stage. Photo attestation and address proof attestation is requested by joint RTO. So I had to come back next with those attested copy next day. In the fees counter they said original invoice is required. Luckily I had a copy of the same and submitted it.
In the month of april i am going to take my bike from
Maharashtra to Chhattisgarh for a period of 1 to 1.5 year
Q.1) what should i do?
as i read before that more than a year i need NOC and new registration and need to pay road tax.
but it will be little more than 1 year. and I am sure that i will come to maharashtra again after little more than 1 year.
can i ride my bike like that only. i have all the documents ready like RC book, Insurance, PUC.
what are the charges for road tax in chhattisgarh.?
or should i send my bike before 1 year to maharashtra again so that i dont have to do all these time wasting things.
do reply fellas!!!
m in need of information!!!
Suppose I have just paid road tax to ride bike for one year with other state registration. What should be do if I have to stay after one year.
@Ashish, Take some time to read the post or the related post. NOC (Form 28) is required as per procedure. Before you move out of Bangalore, get it from the registered RTO. You might need to get Police Clearance Certificate and attach that with your Form 28 request. Please follow the guidelines as per KA norms.
I bought a bike 1 year ago in Bangalore. Now I want to transfer my bike to bhubaneshwar(Orissa ) permanently .
What are procedure to get the NOC from RTO.
Whether NOC is mandatory document needed to submit for new registration.
Even i paid the lifetime road tax , is it not sufficient to run a bike.
a. I will go directly to RTO office for NOC, approx how much money i have to spend for this.
b. If i will go for broker, how much i have to pay them .
Please anyone suggest me.
Thanks in Advance
I wouldn't have an answer for your question. Can you go through the list of registration related procedure for your State? Usually they are a uniform set of procedures followed across State. Or better talk to some senior RTO official. They might help you out.
Great question...to be honest, can you go through the set of registration related queries on TN Govt website?
Talk to a higher level RTO officer (meaning: least corrupt) and the district crimes record bureau officer (surprisingly, many are efficient to your queries). I would say, visit your RTO with a clear cut grievance in mind and express the same to the Officer. Hopefully, you'll get an answer.
Hello to all
i purchase a bike from gautam budh nagar (up-16) and i live in ghaziabad (up-14), so how can i get ownership of this bike. is there any requirement of NOC. how much fee will i have to be paid
Hi, I have a question here. Suppose I took the NOC from State A for 1year period and moved my vehicle to State B.
However why do I have to do a reregistration in State B? I have seen that the police in Chennai only ask for the NOC certificate from State A. If I stayed in State B for 1 yr and then moving back to State A after the NOC expires, do I need to re-register my vehicle in State A? Or do I need to follow the same process again to transfer my vehicle from State B back to State A? Please suggest.
I bought my bike from Nellore AP to bangalore. I just want to under stand how much it cost for NOC in bangalore?
Can any one suggest me.........plsssss
and yeah i forgot, Broker charges were unavoidable,
bcoz one needs to do PHd in Motor Vehicles Act for avoiding them,
so i choose broker instead of PHd.
Sorry too many comments to read, so i could'nt.
My experience, transferred my Maruti A-Star from Mysore to Lucknow, and the costs were
RTO Charges @ Mysore 3,500 (including Broker Fees)
RTO charges @ Lucknow 5,500 (including Broker Fees)
Road Tax @Lucknow 32,500
Visits @ Mysore 3 times other 4 vists were made by my friend because i was in Lucknow by then.
Visits @ Lucknow 9 times
Total time in all processing ....about 6 months.
At last i felt like an Asshole bringing this vehcle here.
I brought it because i loved it, but now i almost hate it.
for bike it is 350 and for car it is 650 this is the amount they charge for NOC. I had taken that for my bike
from hyd to bangalore
Why can't our transportation ministry convene a meeting with the Administrative officials (IAS/Bureaucrats) and work a simple plan to keep the Motor Vehicles registered in India in a commonly accessible database? All they have to do is hire the IT brains in India and work on a plan about all the current handicaps and how to overcome them. It just needs spirit! When we are help bent on suppressing free and individuals views through electronic media, i think we are hitting the reverse gear in India in all sorts! Such is the pathetic state of Indian Democracy now!